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The Garo speak a primitive language, termed proto-Garo for consistency, that holds an agglutanitive structure for derivational and verbal morphology and and an analytic structure for nominal and pronominal morphology with head-finalness & VSO word order.
- Long Vowels /i: u: ɔ: ɛ: æː/ <ī ū ō ē ā>
- Short Vowels /i u ɔ ɛ æ/ <i u o e a>
- Oral Diphthongs /ɛi ɛɔ æi æɔ ɔi uɔ ɛːi ɛːɔ æːi æːɔ/ <ei eo ai ao oi uo ēi ēo āi āo>
- Nasals /m n/ <m n>
- Stops /p t k c ʔ/ <p t k c q>
- Palatalised Stops /pʲ tʲ kʲ/ <b d g>
- Fricatives /ɸ ɕ ʃ ç χ/ <f s z h x>
- Approximants /ʋ ʟ/ <v l>
- Tap /ɾ/ <r>
[Syllable Structure] PG uses a CV(V) syllable structure with Final V optional. Consonant clusters are not allowed in any position and a consonant cannot end a word or syllable.
Stress is moraic with single (short or long) vowels counting as one mora and double vowels/diphthongs counting as two mora. In multisyllabic words stress falls on the final syllable if it contains one mora but the penultimate if the final syllable is two mora. Stress is not marked in the orthography but is regular.
Nouns Nouns use a system of particles to mark case and inflections to mark gender, otherwise being fairly analytic.
PG inflections are suffixed on to the preceeding noun, keeping the root intact.
- Masculine -i/bi
- Feminine -u/bu
- Inanimate Masculine -a/ba
- Inanimate Feminine -o/bo
- Nominative ve
- Accusative ka
- Genitive lu
- Dative mo
- Ablative zo
- Elative ki
- Abessive re
All nouns are treated as count nouns, which is to say that there is no measure word for nouns just attach the number as an adjective.
There are only two types of pronouns in PG, Personal & Interrogative which inflect like nouns and take on their particles.
- Adjective [which] xā
- Person [who] fāizi
- Thing [what] puo
- Place [where] giki
- Time [when] damo
- Way [how] pūfoi
- Reason [why] qaka
Verbs in PG are highly inflected taking on a number of affixes to show number, person, tense, aspect, mood & evidentiality.
|I have eaten|
|I have just eaten|
|I am eating|
|I am about to eat|
|I am going to eat|
|I haven't finished eating|
|I am still eating|
|I've finished eating|
I am not still eating
I am still eating
Hearsay (Someone else heard/saw)
I heard from X he was still eating
I heard him still eating
I saw him eating