Tow is a language spoken in Southeastern Exhpazixh, in the area near Putvå Iāltuxhe. It is spoken by the Tow, who are a minority group whose origins are separate from those of the Rumzquze people with whom they have had close contact for many years.
Tow is largely isolating and tonal, with up to six contour distinctions depending on dialect.
|Plosive||t||kʲ ŋgʲ||k ŋg|
- /kʷ ŋgʷ/ are rare and generally found only in loan words.
/i e ɛ a ə ɔ o u/ < i e eh a uh oh o u>
Syllabic Consonants /m̩ ʑ̩/ <mm zz>
- Low-flat (11) flat bar below (m̱m)
- Mid-high-flat (44) flat bar above (m̄m)
- Mid-falling (31) grave accent below (m̖m)
- High-falling (51) grave accent above (m̀m)
- Low-rising (14) acute accent above (ḿm)
- Mid-contour (254) circumflex above (m̂m)
- Rising (previous, previous+1) none (mm)
- final plosives can only be present if a (F,A,N) consonant precedes it.
- final plosives cannot be palatals, and no prenasalized stops
- long vowels are present only in final syllables or in final syllables of compounds
- stress is final
- words containing syllablic consonants do not have codas
- Vowels are lowered before palatalized, palatal, and alveopalatal consonants.
|1st Person||āx||āx ku̱h||āx m̀m|
|2nd Person||óhwk||óhwk ku̱h||óhwk m̀m|
|3rd Person||le̱h||le̱h ku̱h||le̱h m̀m|
|1st Person||cān āx||cān km̖m āx||cān m̀m āx|
|2nd Person||cān óhwk||cān km̖m óhwk||cān m̀m óhwk|
|3rd Person||cān le̱h||cān km̖m le̱h||cān m̀m le̱h|
|1st Person||cìl āx||cìl kẕz āx||cìl z̄z āx|
|2nd Person||cìl óhwk||cìl kẕz óhwk||cìl z̄z óhwk|
|3rd Person||cìl le̱h||cìl kẕz le̱h||cìl z̄z le̱h|
|Class 1||Males, thin objects, trees, assorted||(.)C1||ngyí||ngyù|
|Class 2||Females, bulgy objects, assorted||(.)C2||wí||wù|
|Class 3||Square/angular, Buildings||(.)C3||tí||tù|
|Class 4||marine/air anim, empty, light objects,small plants||(.)C4||nyí||nyù|
|Class 5||White objects, land animals||(.)C5||yà||yéct|
|Class 6||Congregated objects (ie books)||(.)C6||nyín||nyùn|
|Class 7||Ephemeral Qualities, Ideas||(.)C7||íf||ùf|
|Class 8||Neuter, Other||(.)C8||wāft||wàst|the man ngyù cō DEF.C1 person a girl wí cō ì INDEF.C2 person DIM the box tù géhy DEF.C3 box a silverfish nyí tāw INDEF.C4 tāw
Verbs are not inflected. Clitics/Particles/Affixes are used to denote various verbal usages. The default is progressive aspect.
āx às wòhl 1sg.SBJ TEMP eat I am eating. āx às wòhl an 1sg.SBJ TEMP eat PERF I ate. (and finished)
Intransitive sentences have the formation S-(TEMP)-V
- āx às wòhl
- 1sg.SBJ TEMP eat
- I am eating.
Transitive sentences have structure O-S-(TEMP)-V
- cōììm̀m āx às wòhl
- person DIM DIM PLU 1sg.SBJ TEMP eat
- I am eating babies.
Ditransitive sentences have structure O-S-(TEMP)-V-Patient
- cōììm̀m cītm̱m nústasan cìlāx
- person DIM DIM PLU Satan have PROG PERF 1sg.PAT
- Satan gave me babies to eat.
|an||Perf||indicates perfective aspect|
|ca̱||EVID||indicates a general truth|
|às||TEMP||indicates a temporal occurrence, as opposed to a theoretical one|
- ca̱ - “I know that it is true based on my own past knowledge”
- u̱hf - “I know it is true because someone told me.”
- nwo̖h - “I know it is true because it is happening now.”
- nwa̱ - “I think it may be true because I remember something related to it.”
- té - “I have no evidence to back it up, but I’ll say it anyway.”
- nyèh - “It may or may not be true, but you have to figure that out yourself.”
- ās sā “It is true because a whisper brought it to me.”
āx às wòhl cōìm̀m
1sg.SBJ TEMP eat person DIM PLU
I am eating children.
cōìm̀m às wòhl cānāx
person DIM PLU TEMP eat 1sg.ACC
Children are eating me.
āx núst tōhw e̱xt ca̱
1sg.SBJ have speak ability EVID
I can speak.
āx núst wòhl cōìm̀m e̱xt ca̱
1sg.SBJ have eat person DIM PLU ability EVID
I can eat children.
cōììm̀m āx às wòhl
person DIM DIM PLU 1sg.SBJ TEMP eat
I am eating babies.
cìlóhwk cōììm̀m às wòhl
2sg.PATIENT person DIM DIM PLU TEMP eat
Babies are eating you.
cītm̱m cōììm̀m às wòhl
Satan person DIM DIM PLU TEMP eat
Babies are eating Satan.