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The Northern Ancient Sbakaz language (NAS) is spoken by the Ancient Sbakaz People, a society on the Northern Coastal savannas of the most southwest island. It is rather synthetic language with synthetic word construction. Compared to it's parent language, Proto-Sbakaz, it has lost some synthetic qualities, but does not differ too much. It has also become more of a case based language, with four new cases.

EtymologyEdit

The name "Sbakaz" means "The People" in PS. It stems from Bakan, become, with the ending "-z" which means "one who -". Bakaz therefore means "A Person", or "The one who becomes". The "s" comes from the plural prefix for masculine words, which are nearly all.

PhonologyEdit

The phonemes the language represents have a strong tendency towards approximates, and

VowelsEdit

A = [a] E = [e] I = [i] O = [o] U = [u] Ü = [ɨ] Ù = [ə]

ConsonantsEdit

V [v] B [b] D [d] S [s] Z [z] N [n] M [m] G [g] Ch [tʃ] W [w] T [t] K [k].

Aside from those, J's are pronounced as [j] and Zh is as [ʒ]. Other sounds not in English are the following:

β = [β]

Γ = [ɣ̞]

X = [x] (Rare)

Ṫ = [t̪]

Ḋ= [d̪]

GrammarEdit

SyntaxEdit

SentenceEdit

The base structure is VSO, with modifiers coming after the word it modifies. To form a question, order is switched to an SVO order.

Verb PhraseEdit

The syntax of a verb phrase can be a little complicated in PS, if you factor in the verb itself. The base structure is the verb itself, whose structure we will cover later. The second major part is the Auxillary, which comes before the core verb.

Kaddi Γodin 'üs

You should make/cause

After that part, it may be followed by an adverb, or another type of phrase.

Noun PhraseEdit

The noun phrase is quite simple as well. First you have the noun itself, and then a conjunction or relative phrase marker. If there are two or more nouns conjoined. You may also have a preposition in front of the noun when needed.


MorphologyEdit

SubstansitivesEdit

Substansitive, which include all nouns and adjectives, are formed the same way(with adjective agreement). The substanstive is entirely synthetic in formation, with agglutination. They start out with a location prefix, if applicable, then followed by the plural marker(which is affected by gender). The next piece is the noun stem itself, followed by a case marker.

GenderEdit

Gender in NAS is actually quite easy. There are two genders, masculine and feminine, but they are not arbitrarily assigned. If an object is specifically feminine, it will be feminine. If it is not, it is automatically masculine. The Feminine is marked with a -t, which comes after the root, or replaces the final letter (In the case of the "one who" -z particle). E.g. Bakaz (Man), Bakat (Woman)

PluralsEdit

Plural in PS is based on gender, with the plural marker for masculine, and thus most words, being S-, as we have in "sbakaz" (people). For feminine, it is V-, which would make "Women", Vbakat.

CasesEdit

There are 11 cases in NAS, all shown in the following table (Note, "x" stands for whatever noun in the case being described)

Nominative The subject
Accusative The Direct or Indirect Object
Genitive To say "Of x"
Instrumental To say "With x"
Locative To say "Without x"
Relative To say "the x that" Note, that this is not truly a case, as it can be added to the end even if there is another case marker.
Equative To say "x-like"
Abessive To say "x-less"
Commitative To say "In company with x"
Causative To say something was done with x as a cause
Benefactive To say something was done for the benefit of x
The StructureEdit

LocationalPrefix.Case.PluralMarker.NounRoot.Gender.RelativeMarker

VerbsEdit

The verb is also agglutinative, with the so called "Direction" prefix first, and the verb stem following. After the verb stem is: the mood, time marker, tense, and negative marker.

The Direction PrefixEdit

The Direction Prefix is an odd thing. It's definition is hard to put in words, but the direction it speaks about it metaphysical for lack of a better term. This particle is not necessary to be in a verb, The following is a table.

Direction Prefix Example of Modification
Towards ze- The Verb "to transfer" can be given this to become "to give"
Away mag- The Verb "to transfer" can be given this to become "to take" or "to recieve"
Around sek- Would cause "look" to become "look around"
Over bar- Would make "emphasize", "over-emphasize"
Under ṫur- Would make "emphasize", "under-emphasize"


MoodEdit

In NAS, there are only 4 moods, and one of them is unmarked, and one of them has a little complication. The first mood is the indicative, and remains unmarked. The second is the imperative, which uses the marker "ü" (or "üt" if you are talking to a woman). The third is the causative, which uses the marker "s", which is placed after the imperative marker if the sentence is a command to cause something, or when saying something was caused. The final case is the desiderative mood, which roughly gives a verb the meaning "May x". For example, "May we win" would be win.DES we.


Time AffixEdit

The time particle is a little tricky as well, because it covers both tense and the amount of times an action is performed. The following is a list of the particles, which can be combined (when logical) with each other in any chosen order.

Affix End Explanation
Again -ag- The English equivalent of the prefix "re-"
Habitually -gadd- Used to say you do something habitually, e.g. "I walk every morning", "I sing well"
Never -Va- Adds the semantic meaning of the English "Never" to the sentence. e.g. "I will never" "I never" "I never have"
Twice -Ba- To say that an action is doubled up.
TenseEdit

In NAS, there are 4 Tenses. The unmarked present. A past, a future, and an immediate future.

Past -tiz-
Future -nozh-
Immediate Future -zed-
The NegativeEdit

The negative Suffix is a simple "-ve" added to the end of the sentence to negate the meaning.

StructureEdit

Direction.VerbStem.Mood.Time.Negative